**Part A Use the drawing of the MO energy diagram to predict the bond order of…**

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## Question “Part A Use the drawing of the MO energy diagram to predict the bond order of…”

**Part A**

Use the drawing of the MO energy diagram to predict the bond

order of Li2+.

Express the bond order as an integer or fraction.

**Part B**

Use the drawing of the MO energy diagram to predict the bond

order of Li2?.

Express the bond order as an integer or fraction.

**Part C**

Which molecules are predicted to exist in the gas phase?

Check all that apply

Check all that apply

Li2? | |

Li2+ |

## Answer

This concept is used to solve the problem by using MO diagram.

The difference in the number of electrons in anti-bonding molecular orals and in bonding molecular orbitals is equal to one-half of the bond order in a molecule.

The importance of bond orders is as follows:

1.Stability in molecules or ions

If the bond order of a molecule is positive, it will be stable. However, if it is negative or zero, the molecule will not be stable.

2.Bond dissociation energy:

Bond order and Bond dissociation are directly proportional. Therefore, if bond order is high, then bond dissociation will be greater.

3.Bond length:

Inversely proportional is the relationship between bond length and order

The bond length will therefore be smaller if the bond order is higher.

4.Number bonds

The number of covalent bonds within a molecule is equal to its bond order value. If bond order is 2 then there are 2 covalent bonds.

If all electrons are paired, the species will be diamagnetic. Para-magnetism needs unpaired electrons.

**Part of**

This is how the general molecular orbital looks like:

The line that passes through the two nuclei is the center of the sigma (s), bonding molecular orbitals.

The sigma (s), bonding molecular orbital

Constructive interference occurs when the parallel *and p* orbitals are combined with the matching positive and negative phases. This results in a bonding orbital p. The electron probability lies between the nuclei.

Bonding p orbital

The anti-bonding molecular orbitals sigma (s ^{}), the anti-bonding MO, has a greater electron probability than either side of the nuclei.

The sigma (s ^{*}) antibonding molecular orbitals

The p ^{*} antibonding MO is formed when the parallel *and p* orbitals have opposite phases.

The orbital p ^{*} antibonding MO orbital

The atomic number for lithium is 3. There are 6 electrons in lithium molecular, while 5 electrons in

ion.

The following Molecular orbital s are occupied in

:

Here’s how to calculate the bond order:

**Part B**

These Molecular orbital positions are found in

.